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Basic Concepts of Educational Centralization and Decentralization

Centralization is all authority centered on the central government. The region is just waiting for instructions from the center to implement the policies outlined according to the Act. According to the economics of management centralization is to concentrate all authority on a small number of managers or who are at a peak in an organizational structure. Centralization is widely used by the government before regional autonomy.
Basic Concepts of Educational Centralization and Decentralization

Decentralization as an organizational concept implies delegation or delegation of power or authority from leaders or superiors to subordinate levels in organization. The transfer of authority from the center to the regions is not merely the distribution of power, but to accelerate efforts to improve management efficiency and employee job satisfaction, because regions have the authority to manage potential, develop initiatives and solve educational problems based on local characteristics.

Thus the decentralization of education is the delegation of authority from the central government to local governments to design, implement and assess management based on the potentials and characteristics of the regions themselves while still referring to the national education system.

Not all central authority is decentralized to the regions. There are aspects of education that are still being managed by the center, including the formulation or formulation of national policies regarding the curriculum, the basic requirements regarding levels of education, requirements for opening new programs, requirements for teachers and other education personnel at each level of education, and activities other strategic.

The authorization of education management itself must give birth to the full responsibility of local governments to build higher quality education, by starting to fix weaknesses as a fundamental problem of education.

Thus decentralization opens opportunities to improve and improve quality by arranging effective and efficient education management based on the region's own distinctiveness. Fiske (1996: 24) states that the goal of education decentralization is education improvement administrative efficiency, financial efficiency, political goals, effects on equity.