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Definition of Phonemic Sound, Alophon, Phonetic Study

Language sounds are air vibrations that enter the ear in the form of sounds or sounds. Sound is the occurrence of two or more objects rubbing against each other or colliding. Sound can be produced from human speech tools that can be manifested in song or speech.
Definition of Phonemic Sound, Alophon, Phonetic Study

a) Phonemes
The term phoneme can be defined as the smallest unit of language that is functional, meaning that the unit of phonemes has a function to distinguish meaning. Phonemes in a language have several pronunciation that depend on their place in a word or syllable. Example phoneme / t / if it is at the beginning of a word or syllable, it is pronounced freely. In the word / hat /, the phoneme / t / is pronounced off. However, if it is at the end of a word, the phoneme / t / is not pronounced off. Our lips are still tightly closed when saying a sound, for example on the word / create /.

b) Alophone
Allophones are differences in sound that do not cause differences in meaning, for example / i / and / I / in / winIs /. Alophon is the whole realization of phoneme pronunciation. That is, many have in common in the pronunciation. Allophones of a phoneme can also exhibit a characteristic called free variation. Such allophones can be exchanged in the same place. This can happen mainly because human speech devices are basically unable to recite two sounds that are really the same in a row.

The phoneme variants are based on position in the word, for example the first phoneme in the word meal and meaning are phonetically different. Variations in a phoneme that do not distinguish between meanings are called allophones. Allophones are written between two square brackets [...]. If we release [p] we mark it with [p] only, while [p] we cannot mark [p>]. Then we can say that in Indonesian the phoneme / p / has two allophones, namely [p] and [p>].

c) Phonetic Study
Phonetics is a field of scientific study that examines how humans produce language sounds in speech, examines the sound waves of language issued and how human hearing aids receive language sounds received by the human brain. According to Clark and Yallop (1990), phonetics is a field that deals with the study of the way humans speak, hear, and process accepted speech. Phonetics is very useful for teaching diction, mastering speech of foreign language sounds, improving spoken words for someone who has problems in hearing:

1) Phonetic physiology
Physiology is a branch of science that studies human physiological functions. As a normal human being can produce various sounds of language by utilizing his speech organs. Thus, the phonetic field which examines the production of language sounds based on the biological mechanism of human speech organs functions is physiologically phonetic.

2) Acoustic phonetics
The acoustic phonetic study relies on the physical structure of language sounds and how the human hearing instrument reacts to the sounds of the language received. The main characteristics of language sounds are emphasized in this study, namely: frequency, tempo, and loudness. In summary, it can be concluded that acoustic phonetics is trying to describe how a language sound is responded to and produced by the mechanism of human pronunciation.

3) Phonetic phonetics
The phonetic auditor, also called perception phonetics, directs his study to the problem of how humans determine the choice of sounds acceptable to other hearing aids. In general phonetics is divided into three studies, among others