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Educational Supervision Approach

The approach comes from the word approach. Approach here is how to get closer to the object or steps towards the object. In the school environment, of course there are teaching and learning processes carried out by teachers to their students. With this a teacher becomes a major factor in improving and improving teaching.
Educational Supervision Approach

To improve the improvement and quality of school principals, supervisors must adopt the right approach and technique. Because the headmaster has different characteristics, the supervisor must be able to determine the right approach in improving his performance. Principals and teachers will get broad insights into the coaching process from supervisors. Because the job of a supervisor is to guide. According to Sudjana (2004) there are two supervision approaches, namely the direct approach and the indirect approach.

However, there is one approach that includes two approaches. So there are three approaches as follows (Shulhan, 2013):

Direct approach (directive)
The direct approach is a way of approaching the problem that is done directly by the supervisor of the teacher or educator who is experiencing problems. In this approach the supervisor gives direct direction, hence the influence of supervisor behavior is more dominant. This direct approach is based on an understanding of psychological behaviorism. Prinsisp behaviorism is all actions that originate from reflexes, which are responses to stimuli or stimuli. If a teacher or educator has a deficiency in doing his job, then it needs to be given direction or stimulus so that the teacher or educator can correct the deficiency and change for the better. In giving direction supervisors can do the following:
1. Explain
2. Presenting
3. Directing
4. Give an example
5. Apply
6. Strengthens

Indirect approach (non-directive)
Indirect approach is a way of approaching the problem that is done indirectly. The supervisor's behavior does not directly indicate the problem, he listens first to the problems raised by the teacher or education, it gives the supervisor an opportunity for the teacher to convey the problems that occur. This approach is based on humanistic psychological understanding. Humanistic psychology highly appreciates the people who will be assisted. Therefore, every teacher who is guided will be very respected, he listens first before commenting on the problems faced by the teacher. In resolving these problems the supervisor does the following:
1. Listen to the ideas that are put forward by the teacher or educator
2. Understand the problems faced by the teacher
3. Give reinforcement
4. Explain and present the problem at hand
5. Solve problems

Collaborative approach
A collaborative approach is a way of approach that includes a direct approach (directive) and an indirect approach (non-directive). This approach supervisors and supervision have an agreement to determine the steps in resolving the problem at hand. This approach is based on an understanding of cognitive psychology. What is meant by cognitive psychology assumes that learning is a combination of individual activities with the environment that will affect individual activities. This approach is related to two directions, from top to bottom and bottom to top. With that, the supervisor can take the following approach:
1. Presenting
2. Explain
3. Listening
4. Solve problems
5. Negotiations

By looking at the behavior that the supervisor does above, this approach can be carried out with the stages of the activity. First the supervisor conducts an initial conversation (pre-conference) then observes, after observing the supervisor will analyze the problem that occurred. Then conduct a final conversation (past-conference) and analyze the end. And the last to discuss.