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Educational Supervision Techniques

Technique is a method or method for doing certain things. Supervision techniques are methods or methods used to achieve specific goals, both related to the resolution of teacher problems in teaching, the problem of principals in developing institutions and problems related to the quality of education. Supervision techniques are divided into two, namely individual or individual supervision techniques and group supervision techniques (Nurmalina, 2017)
Educational Supervision Techniques

Individual or individual technique
Techniques that have an individual implementation method that is given individually. Among these are as follows (Sanders et al., 2017):
a. Class visits
Class visits is a visiting technique that supervisors conduct into a class when the teacher teaches with the aim of seeing or observing the teacher's way of teaching. The purpose of class visits is to get a picture of the real situation in the classroom during the teacher's teaching.
In carrying out class visits there are four stages (Kusumawati, 2016):
1). The preparation phase, at this stage the supervisor plans the time, goals, and ways to observe during class visits
2). Observation stage, which is observing the course of the learning process takes place
3). The final stage of the visit, at this final stage the supervisor and the teacher make a schedule to discuss the observations and follow up

b. Observation
Observation is by observing the learning process with the aim of obtaining data about everything that happens during the teaching and learning process such as the difficulties faced by the teacher in the teaching process. And supervisors usually use the observation instrument evaluatiave check list, activity check list. What was observed during the learning process (Uci Pranita, Nina Kurniah, 2018):
1). The efforts and activities of student teachers in the learning process
2). How to use teaching media
3). Student reactions in the teaching process
4). The state of teaching media used in terms of material

c. Individual conversation
This conversation is carried out by the supervisor and each teacher with the aim to discuss the difficulties faced by the teacher in the learning process

d. Classroom Visits
Classroom visits are a supervision technique by visiting other classes in the school environment itself. With this class-to-class visit, the teacher will gain new experience from his colleagues regarding the implementation of the classroom management learning process and so on.

e. Assess yourself
Self-assessment is an individual technique in supervision. Self-assessment is a technique for teacher professional development. Self-assessment provides objective information to teachers about their role in the classroom and provides opportunities for teachers to learn teaching methods in influencing student learning outcomes.

Group technique
Techniques aimed at coaching teachers together by supervisors with a number of teachers in a group (Sekolah, 2016)
a. Teacher's meeting
Teacher meetings are supervision techniques through meetings held to discuss learning and efforts to improve teacher performance.
b. Inter-teacher group study
Inter-teacher group study is an activity carried out by a number of teachers who have expertise in a particular field of study.
c. Discussion
Discussion is the exchange of thoughts or opinions through a conversation about a problem to find alternative solutions. The discussion is used by supervisors to develop various skills in the teacher in overcoming various problems or difficulties by exchanging ideas with one another.
d. Workshop
Workshop is a group learning activity that occurs from a number of educators who are solving problems through conversation and working in groups.